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Pneumococcal Immunisation

Pneumococcal disease

Pneumococcal disease refers to a wide range of infections caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. The most severe pneumococcal infections are bacteraemia (a blood stream infection) and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes enclosing the brain)  Pneumococcal infections are some of the leading causes of life-threatening illnesses in Australia – particularly among children under two years of age and elderly people.

Some types of Streptococcus pneumonia are commonly found in the upper respiratory tract (nose, throat and windpipe) of healthy people. As well as meningitis and bacteraemia, pneumococcal disease can cause pneumonia (lung infection), septicaemia (blood poisoning), and middle ear and sinus infections.


The pneumococcus bacteria can spread between people through infected droplets in the air and by touching an infected person. It most commonly spreads when an infected person sneezes or coughs.


Pneumococcal meningitis symptoms may include high fever and headache, which may develop over a few hours or one to two days. Other symptoms can also include: vomiting, sensitivity to light, neck stiffness, poor appetite, confusion, irritability, and drowsiness. Pneumococcal meningitis is extremely serious and can be fatal.

Pneumococcal pneumonia symptoms may be vague and include fever, coughing and difficulty breathing.

Pneumococcal blood system infections can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, irritability, drowsiness and rash.

Pneumococcal middle ear infections (otitis media) cause ear pain and a red and swollen ear drum, difficulty sleeping, fever and irritability. Acute middle ear infections are the most common symptom of non-invasive pneumococcal disease in children.


Vaccination can substantially reduce the risk of infection with pneumococcal disease, particularly in young children. Pneumococcal vaccination is recommended as part of routine immunisation for people who face a high risk from pneumococcal and its complications. The pneumococcal vaccine is available free under the National Immunisation Program Schedule for certain age groups and categories (see below).

Immunisation against pneumococcal disease is achieved using single-disease vaccines. For babies, the first dose of pneumococcal vaccine is recommended at two months of age, with subsequent doses at four and six months of age. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and children with specific medical conditions may need further doses. It is recommended that the pneumococcal vaccine be given at the same time as other scheduled vaccines.

As of 1st July 2020 pneumococcal vaccination is available free under the National Immunisation Program for:

  • All children at age 2 months, 4 months and 12 months (NB: Additional doses are recommended and funded for children with risk conditions and for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children living in NT, Qld, SA and WA).
  • People of any age diagnosed with a risk condition. Risk conditions for pneumococcal vaccine include asplenia, immunocompramising conditions, cerebrospinal fluid leak, chronic respiratory disease, chronic renal disease, cardiac disease, and chronic liver disease.
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults without a risk condition at age 50.
  • Non-indigenous adults without a risk condition at age 70.

Please make an appointment with any of the General Practitioners at Glebe Hill Family Practice to discuss your eligibility for pneumococcal vaccination.

Appointments made solely for NIP Schedule Immunisations are bulk-billed at Glebe Hill Family Practice.